Development history of western tableware
Until about the 13th century, Europeans used all their fingers to eat. When eating with fingers, there are certain rules: Romans use the number of fingers to distinguish their identity, commoners have five fingers, educated nobles only use three fingers, and the ring and little fingers cannot touch food . This meal rule continued into the 16th century and was still practiced by Europeans. fork Eating forks first appeared in the 11th century in the Tusca region of Italy, with only two tines. The clergy of the time did not have a favorable opinion of the fork, arguing that humans could only touch the food given by God with their hands. The creation of tableware by the wealthy Tuscans was lured by Satan and was a blasphemous act. According to Italian historical records, a Venetian lady died within a few days after eating with a fork. In fact, it was very likely that she was infected with the plague and died. The clergy said that she was condemned by God and warned everyone not to eat with a fork. In the 12th century, the Archbishop of Canter, England, introduced the fork to the people of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom. as a dueling weapon. For the Anglo-Saxons in the 14th century, the forks were still only imported items. For example, Edward I had seven forks made of gold and silver. Most Europeans at the time liked to cut food into pieces with a knife, then grabbed it with the fingers and put it in the mouth; if a man eats with a fork, it means that if he is not a picky, he is a sissy . In the 18th century, when the Revolutionary War broke out in France, French aristocrats preferred to eat with forks with four tines. The implied meaning of the user of this fork can almost be equated with the distinctive meaning. So the fork became a symbol of status, luxury, and sophistication, and then gradually became a must-have tableware. table knife Ding knives still remain in Western tableware, the reason is that many foods are cut into large pieces when cooking, and when eating, the user will cut it into small pieces of different sizes according to their personal wishes. This is different from the way that the oriental people, especially the Chinese people, cut the food into small pieces of shredded meat, slices, etc. before cooking, and then process it. Perhaps this is why the western cooking technology has always lagged behind the east, especially China. one of the reasons. Table knives have played an important role in human life for a long time. 150 million years ago, the ancestors of human beings began to use stone knives as tools. The knives were hung on their waists, and they were used to cut roast meat and defend themselves from the enemy. Only leaders with status and status can have a variety of Knives for different purposes. During the reign of the French Emperor Louis XIII (1610 AD - 1643 AD), Grand Duke Richelieu, who was well versed in political strategy, not only made a contribution to making France among the major powers in Europe; The cardinal also pays attention to details. The tops of table knives were not the oval shape we are familiar with today, but had sharp tips. Many French bureaucratic dignitaries use table knives as toothpicks after meals, and use it to pick teeth. The Grand Duke Richelieu therefore ordered the servants at home to sharpen the tip of the knife into an oval shape, and forbid guests to pick the teeth of the knife in front of him. cyclone. spoon The history of the spoon is even more ancient. As early as the Paleolithic, spoons appeared in Asia. Spoons made of wood, stone, ivory, gold and other materials have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. The nobles of Greece and Rome used spoons made of copper and silver. In Italy in the 15th century, when baptizing children, the most popular gift was a baptism spoon, that is, the child's guardian angel was made into a spoon handle and given to the baptized child.